One pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 calories. By cutting back 500 calories a day through dietary and exercise modifications, you can lose about a pound a week. If you only need to maintain your current weight, shaving 100 calories a day is enough to avoid the extra 1-2 pounds of fat most adults gain each year. A fat cell is called an adipocyte.
Live longer, longevity increases with good fat diet
Polyunsaturated fats are found in fatty fish (such as salmon, herring, mackerel and trout), soybeans, tofu, soybean oil, corn oil, sunflower oils and seeds, and walnuts. These fats help lower bad cholesterol, and have been linked to a lower risk of heart disease and stroke, and increased lifespan.
Although a great deal of attention has been focused on reducing saturated fats from the diet, the focus should be two-fold: reducing unhealthy fats such as saturated fat and trans fats, and replacing them with healthy fats, such as polyunsaturated fats and fish oils.
Does eating fat make you gain
There is a debate in the medical community regarding the role of eating foods high in fat and weight gain or loss. The popular Atkins diet promotes high fat intake and some people do lose weight, at least initially. There are different viewpoints on this topic.
The presence of fat in the small intestine slows the passage of food through the stomach, stimulates the release of many gastrointestinal hormones, and suppresses appetite and energy intake as a result of the digestion of fats into free fatty acids. Given these effects of fat, it is paradoxical that high dietary fat intakes have been linked to increased energy intake and body weight and are considered to play a significant role in the cause of obesity. However, one possibility is that chronic increase in dietary fat intake is associated with an attenuation of the feedback signals arising from the small intestine induced by fat, with a consequent relative acceleration of gastric emptying.
Current scientific evidence indicates that dietary fat plays a role in weight loss and maintenance. Meta-analyses of intervention trials find that fat-reduced diets cause a 3-4-kg larger weight loss than normal-fat diets. A 10% reduction in dietary fat can cause a 4-5-kg weight loss in individuals with initial body mass index of 30 kg m (-2). Short-term trials show that nonfat dietary components are equally important. Sugar-sweetened beverages promote weight gain, and replacement of energy from fat by sugar-sweetened beverages is counterproductive in diets aimed at weight loss. Protein has been shown to be more satiating than carbohydrate, and fat-reduced diets with a high protein content (20-25% of energy) may increase weight loss significantly. There is little evidence that low-glycemic index foods facilitate weight control. Evidence linking certain fatty acids to body fatness is weak. Monounsaturated fatty acids may even be more fattening than polyunsaturated and saturated fats. No ad libitum dietary intervention study has shown that a normal-fat, high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is comparable to a low-fat diet in preventing weight gain. Current evidence indicates that the best diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease is low in fat and sugar-rich beverages and high in carbohydrates, fiber, grains, and protein.
Where's the fat?
Excess pounds increase the risk of heart disease and where the fat is stored is important. Abdominal fat is a strong independent risk factor for heart disease and the so-called waist-hip ratio is a better predictor of heart disease than waist circumference or body mass index (BMI). A big waist with comparably big hips does not appear to raise heart disease risk as a big waist with small hips." People with excessive belly fat have a greater risk of heart disease and cancer than those who have it in other body areas, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, news release, July 10, 2013.
Fat in the thigh versus the
belly, pear shape versus apple shape
People with fat in their thighs and backsides may live longer because the fat traps harmful fatty particles and actively secretes helpful compounds. People who accumulate fat around the abdomen and stomach are more likely to die of heart disease and other causes than bottom-heavy people. Konstantinos Manolopoulos of Britain's University of Oxford says the protective properties of the lower-body fat depot have been confirmed in many studies. Fat on the bottom and thighs appears to store excess fatty acids. Pear-shaped people also appear to have lower levels of compounds called inflammatory cytokines - signaling chemicals involved in the body's response to infection that also can play a role in heart disease and diabetes when they are inappropriately active. Konstantinos Manolopoulos says fat on the legs may also absorb fats from the diet, keeping them from overwhelming the body when people overeat.
Fat Cells and Hormones
Until recently, the adipocyte has been considered only a passive tissue for the storage of excess energy in the form of fat. However, there is now compelling evidence that adipose tissue acts as an endocrine and secretory organ. It has been shown that several hormones, growth factors and cytokines are actually expressed in white adipose tissue. In a dynamic view of the adipocyte a wide range of signals emanates from white adipose tissue such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and their respective soluble receptors. White adipose tissue also secretes important regulators of lipoprotein metabolism like lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein E (apoE) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). The increasing number of products secreted by adipocytes also includes leptin, estrogen, resistin, angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue factor and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and adiponectin. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been also reported to be expressed in white adipose tissue. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adipophilin, adipoQ, adipsin, monobutyrin, agouti protein and factors related to pro-inflammatory and immune processes have also been shown to be released by white adipocytes. Since blood vessels express receptors for most of the adipocyte-derived factors, adipose tissue seems to play a key role in cardiovascular physiology through the existence of a network of local and systemic signals.
Cold temperatures may raise levels of calorie-burning "brown fat" in your body. Unlike white fat, brown fat burns calories instead of storing them, and some studies have shown that brown fat has beneficial effects on glucose (blood sugar) tolerance, fat metabolism and body weight.
Exposure to noise from traffic, trains and planes may be linked to a bigger belly. Long-term exposure to traffic noise may affect our metabolism and lead to abdominal obesity.
Does fat intake influence breast
Total dietary fat intake may not influence breast cancer risk, but the type consumed may. A Swedish study involved 44,569 women of normal weight at enrollment, at which time their fat intake was assessed. During an average follow up of 13 years, 974 women developed breast cancer. Women reporting the highest monounsaturated fat MUFA and polyunsaturated fat intake had a markedly reduced risk of breast cancer after age 50 years compared to women with the lowest MUFA and PUFA intake. British Journal of Cancer, 2007.
Colon cancer and abdominal fat
Adults who carry much of their fat around the middle are at increased risk of colon cancer. Among 370,000 adults from nine European countries, men and women with large waistlines were more likely to develop colon cancer than those who were trimmer around the middle. Waist size and waist-to-hip ratio, which are both indicators of abdominal obesity, appeared more important in colon cancer risk than does overall weight. In fact, the study found that body mass index (BMI) -- a measure of weight in relation to height -- was unrelated to colon cancer risk among the women. The findings, reported in July issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, suggest that abdominal fat holds a particular influence over colon cancer risk.
Dr. Lynda H. Powell of Rush University Medical Center in Chicago has found that depressive symptoms are related to deposits of visceral fat, which is the type of fat involved in cardiovascular disease. In the study of 409 middle-aged women, Dr. Lynda Powell found a strong association between depression and belly fat, as seen on a CT scan, especially among overweight and obese women. Women with high scores on a commonly used depression scale had 24 percent more visceral fat than women with lower scores on the depression scale. The results were the same in African American and White women. No association was noted wtih depressive symptoms and the more visible subcutaneous fat. Depression may trigger the accumulation of belly fat by boosting production of the stress hormone cortisol and certain inflammatory compounds in the body. Psychosomatic Medicine, May 2009.
Is it possible that belly fat could release hormones that could lower mood?
Prior to reaching the golden years, too much body fat tends to increase the risk of dying, but extra weight may have the opposite effect for older adults. Dr. Jennifer L. Kuk, from York University in Toronto, Canada, thinks higher fat mass in older adults to be an energy reserve that helps the individual survive illnesses and chronic conditions. Along with Dr. Chris I. Ardern, also from York University, Dr. Jennifer L. Kuk used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 1988 and 1994 to assess body mass, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference, and other body mass and body fat indicators among 4,437 men and 5,166 women. Overall, 1,116 of them were 65 to 75 years old and 1,200 were older than 75 years. Over an average of 8.7 years, 1,466 study participants died. As expected, the fewest deaths -- 4 percent in men and 3.5 percent in women -- occurred among those 18 to 64 years old. In this group, the risk of death was increased in obese men and in overweight and obese women. But in the older groups, being underweight was associated with greater mortality, whereas being overweight was associated with lower mortality. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2009.
Fit and fat - is it possible to
be both healthy and fat?
It may be possible to be both fat and healthy. At least half of overweight adults, and close to a third of obese men and women, have normal blood pressure, cholesterol and other measures of heart health. Being lean does not necessarily protect people. Close to a quarter of normal-weight U.S. adults in one study had risk factors for heart disease or diabetes.
Fat Intake and Obesity
In animals, increasing dietary fat increases body fat, and it is unlikely that humans escape this important biological rule. In epidemiological studies, increasing dietary fat is associated with increased prevalence of obesity probably by increasing the intake of energy dense foods. In the National Weight Loss Registry, three things were associated with weight loss: continued monitoring of food intake, lowering dietary fat intake, and increased exercise. The relation of dietary fat is most evident when physical activity is low. The speed of adaptation to dietary fat is increased by exercise. When dietary fat is reduced, weight is lost, but weight loss eventually plateaus. The rate of weight loss during the initial phase is about 1.6 g/day for each 1% decrease in fat intake. When dietary fat is replaced with olestra to reduce fat intake from 33% to 25% in obese men, weight loss continues for about 9 months reaching a maximum of nearly 6% of body weight and a loss of 18% of initial body fat. In the control group with a 25% reduced-fat diet, weight loss stopped after 3 months and was regained over the next 6 months, indicating the difficulty of adhering to a conventional low-fat diet. Thus, dietary fat is an important contributor to obesity in some people.
Sense of smell improvement
Br J Nutr. 2015. Dietary intakes of fats, fish and nuts and olfactory impairment in older adults. It is unclear whether lifestyle modifications, such as dietary changes, should be advocated to prevent olfactory dysfunction. We investigated the association between dietary intakes of fats (saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and cholesterol) and related food groups (nuts, fish, butter, margarine) with olfactory impairment. Older adults with the highest consumption of nuts and fish had reduced odds of olfactory impairment.
Supplements that help lose fat or control appetite:
5-HTP converts into the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is involved in appetite control.
Acetylcarnitine is a mind booster but can, in some people, help control appetite.
Natural Fat Blockers
There are a few natural supplements promoted as fat blockers. I have not seen good research yet regarding their effectiveness:
Chitosan fat blocker. Chitosan supplements are sold without a prescription.
Kinospherine fat blocker
Hercampuri is claimed to dissolve fat but we cannot find research to validate this claim.
Fat Blocking Drugs
Xenical, also known as Orlistat, helps prevent fat from being absorbed by the body, but can cause excess gas and oily discharge. In 1999, the FDA approved orlistat for sale as a prescription drug. Now, GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare seeks to sell an over-the-counter version of the pill. That proposed version, called Alli (pronounced ``ally''), would contain half the dose of the prescription capsule. When taken with meals, the drug blocks the absorption of about one-quarter of any fat consumed. That fat is passed out of the body in stools, which can be loose or oily as a result. Other side effects include gas, fecal incontinence and oily spotting. About half of patients in trials experienced such side effectsd. In six-month clinical trials, obese people who took orlistat lost on average 5.3 pounds to 6.2 pounds more than did those who were given dummy pills, according to FDA documents. The primary concern of FDA reviewers was the drug's potential to create vitamin deficiencies, since its use also blocks absorption of fat-soluble vitamins like D, E, K and beta-carotene. The company has recommended patients take multivitamins when using the drug. However, many people who take orlistat may not remember to take a vitamin supplement.
High fat meal and inflammation
Bacterial endotoxin is a potently inflammatory antigen that is abundant in the human gut. Endotoxin circulates at low concentrations in the blood of all healthy individuals. A high-fat and sugar meal increases plasma endotoxin concentrations which could increase the risk of atherosclerosis.
Exercise for Fat Loss
A daily walk for 30 minutes can do wonders for a fat belly and body fat reduction. It is difficult to lose fat without engaging in daily physical activity. Exercise may be especially helpful in reducing the size of fat cells around the waistline -- more so than diet alone. That's important, because fat specifically in the abdomen has been linked to the risk of heart disease and diabetes.
Fat Supplement and Athletic Performance
Pre-exercise fat ingestion (i.e., long chain triacylglycerol ingestion 1 to 4 h before exercise), medium-chain triacylglycerols, fish oil, and conjugated linoleic acid have been suggested to alter metabolism to achieve weight loss, alter lipid profiles, or improve performance. However, studies have demonstrated that ingestion of meals with long-chain triacylglycerols before exercise has little or no effect on metabolism and does not alter subsequent exercise performance. Also, medium-chain triacylglycerol supplementation before or during exercise has not been shown to be ergogenic, although this could be related to the small amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol that can be ingested before gastrointestinal discomfort occurs. Fish oil may improve red blood cell deformability, but these effects are likely to be small and do not seem to influence maximum oxygen delivery or exercise performance. Conjugated linoleic acid - CLA - has been implicated in weight loss, but based on the results of human studies it must be concluded that the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body weight loss are far less clear than those observed in animal studies. Most studies have not found any evidence for a beneficial effect of conjugated linoleic acid.
Trans Fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration, are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. From the perspective of the food industry, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are attractive because of their long shelf life, their stability during deep-frying, and their semisolidity, which can be customized to enhance the palatability of baked goods and sweets.
So-called fat dissolving treatments offered by spas do not eliminate fat and the companies should stop saying so. The procedures, called by names such as lipodissolve, mesotherapy, lipozap, lipotherapy, or injection lipolysis all involve unproven injections of drugs, the FDA said in a statement. "We are concerned that these companies are misleading consumers," Dr. Janet Woodcock, director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said in 2010.
Q. How is fat burned? Can you tell me about such foods?
A. To get your body to burn fat, there is no other way than to perform some sort of physical activity. In the long run, it really does not matter too much whether your physical activity is low intensity with long duration or high intensity with short duration. In fact, it probably is better to mix the two forms. All foods have a certain amount of calories. And calories, no matter what the source, can convert in the body eventually to fat.
Q. How do I get rid of my fat stomach?
A. To make improvements in a fat stomach, take daily walks at least an hour, do situps, and eat fewer calories.
Can you tell me about the fat flush program?
I am not familiar with the fat flush program. Just exercise more and eat less foods that are dense with calories.
Pillsbury pie crust lists “no trans fat” on the front of
it’s package BUT the ingredients list Hydrogenated LARD. When you add hydrogen
to lard do you get a trans fat? Is the product as harmful to the body as
Hydrogenated oils usually start out as polyunsaturated oils. Lard is pig fat and is mostly saturated. It's difficult to say which is more unhealthy, hydrogenated lard or hydrogenated oils. For practical purposes, consumption of small amounts should not pose health issues. It is best to avoid regular consumption of large portions.
Is hydrogenated lard a trans fat?
Lard contains 10–13% of linoleic acid. Partial hydrogenation of lard decreases linoleic acid content, but increases trans-fatty acid content.
Hoping you can point me in the direction of something
natural that dissolves benign fatty lipomas?
I am not aware of natural products or supplements that dissolve a fatty lipoma.
Hi Doctor, just wanted to check to see what you thought
about Amberen. They say it even helps you lose the belly fat.
A Medline search in 2014 did not reveal any studies with Amberen, which is claimed to have ammonium succinate and calcium disuccinate.
I am an Eskimo from Alaska and I eat whale blubber 2 to 3 times a week, since whale primarily eat krill, do you think I should get the same benefits as krill oil?
Probably some. Whale blubber could contain astaxanthin, it does have beneficial omega-3 acids, but it is possible it could also contain contaminants such as organic pollutants. I have not studied the effects of whale blubber fat on overall health but I suspect moderate consumption should provide positive health benefits with minimal risks.
Sci Total Environ. 2014. An assessment of contaminant concentrations in toothed whale species of the NW Iberian Peninsula: Part I. Persistent organic pollutants. Concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the blubber of the five most common toothed whales off the Northwest Iberian Peninsula (NWIP), specifically common dolphin, long-finned pilot whale, harbour porpoise, striped dolphin and bottlenose dolphin, were investigated. The study revealed that differences in PCB and PBDE concentrations among the species are highly dependent on age and sex but also on ecological factors such as trophic level, prey type and habitat. Of the five species studied, bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise showed the greatest concentrations of PCBs. Overall, the PCB and PBDE levels observed in the NWIP toothed whales were of the same order of magnitude or lower than those reported by previous studies in areas of the NE Atlantic. However, they are often higher than those for toothed whales from the southern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.