CitriMax and Super CitriMax research by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
April 8 2015

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a major acid component of the tropical plants Garcinia cambogia - a plant native to Southeastern Asia - and Hibiscus subdariffa. The availability of hydroxycitric acid is limited by the restricted habitat of the plants as well as the difficulty of making hydroxycitric acid in the laboratory. You can find CitriMax in an all natural herbal diet pill call Diet Rx which works very well for appetite suppression. See below for details.
   The evidence for toxicity is still unclear. At this time it appears that reasonable use does not cause any harm.

Hydroxycitric acid HCA and weight loss
CitriMax has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to hydroxycitric acid. However, other components may contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Results thus far with hydroxycitric acid and weight loss appear to be promising.

Natrol Pure Citrimax, 250 mg, Hydroxycitric Acid HCA

Natrol's Pure CitriMax is derived from the dried rind of Garcinia Cambogia, a native fruit of India. CitriMax contains high concentrations of (-) hydroxycitric acid (HCA), verified by HPLC to guarantee potency and quality.

CitriMax Supplement Facts:
Hydroxycitric Acid HCA 250 mg
     Standardized Extract from Garcinia cambogia fruit


How Citrimax works
Hydroxycitric acid is found in a high concentration - ranging from 10 to 30% - in the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that Hydroxycitric acid inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake.

The primary mechanism of action of hydroxycitric acid appears to be related to its ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.
     Hydroxycitric acid from Hibiscus subdariffa inhibits alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, leading to reduction of carbohydrate metabolism.

CitriMax and Super CitriMax Research
Super CitriMax attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2007. Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA,
Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Super CitriMax on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. These results suggest that Super CitriMax supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, Super CitriMax may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

Comparison of the effects of three different hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats.
Nutr Metabolism. 2005.
The aim of the current study is to compare different hydroxycitric acid -containing preparations in adult Wistar rats. The effects of 3 different hydroxycitric acid -containing preparations (Regulator, Citrin K, Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS, all used at an effective hydroxycitric acid dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, administered intragastrically) on food intake and body weight were studied in adult male Wistar rats. The efficacy was tested under 2 different experimental conditions: 1) after a single dose administration and 2) during repeated administration for 4 subsequent days. Regulator and Citrin K significantly reduced food intake in both experimental setups, while Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS was less effective. When administered for 4 subsequent days Regulator and Citrin K diminished body weight gain. Regulator and Citrin K were shown to be potent inhibitors of food intake in rats, whereas Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS showed only small and more inconsistent effects. The striking differences in efficacy between these 3 preparations indicate that low doses of a relatively low-effective hydroxycitric acid preparation may have contributed to the lack of efficacy as found in several human studies.

Safety assessment of hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2004.
Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract, is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients. Acute oral toxicity studies in animals demonstrate that CitriMax (50% HCA as calcium salt) has a low acute oral toxicity. In a subchronic study in rats, the gavage administration of HCA-SX at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day for a period of 90 days caused a significant decrease in body weight and reduction in feed consumption without any adverse effects. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of use of HCA and other toxicity studies indicate that HCA-SX is unlikely to cause reproductive or developmental effects. HCA-SX was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation in Ames genotoxicity assays in strains TA98 and TA102. HCA-SX-induced increases in number of revertants in other strains (TA100 and TA1535 in the absence of metabolic activation and in strain TA1537 in the presence of metabolic activation) but these were not considered as biologically indicative of a mutagenic effect. In several, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials employing up to 2800 mg/day HCA, no treatment-related adverse effects were reported. There is sufficient qualitative and quantitative scientific evidence, including animal and human data suggesting that intake of HCA at levels up to 2800 mg/day is safe for human consumption.