Cell Biol Int. 2015. Roles of resolvins in the resolution of acute inflammation. Resolution is an active process that terminates inflammatory response to maintain health. Acute inflammation and its timely resolution are important in host response to danger signals. Unresolved inflammation is associated with widely recurrent diseases. Resolvins, including the D and E series, are endogenous lipid mediators generated during the resolution phase of acute of inflammation from the ω-3 PUFAs, DHA, and EPA. They have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties that have been determined in many inflammation studies in animal models.
Curr Neuropharmacol. December 2013. Resolvins: Endogenously-Generated Potent Painkilling Substances and their Therapeutic Perspectives. The efficacy of many of pain-relieving drugs is based on mechanisms by which the drugs interfere with the body's natural pain-mediating pathways. By contrast, although it is less popular, other drugs including opioids exert more powerful analgesic actions by augmenting endogenous inhibitory neural circuits for pain mediation. Recently, a novel endogenous pain-inhibitory principle was suggested and is now attracting both scientific and clinical attentions. The central players for the actions are particular body lipids: resolvins. Although research is in the preclinical phase, multiple hypotheses have actively been matured regarding the potency and molecular and neural processes of the analgesic effects of these substances. Consistently, accumulating experimental evidence has been demonstrating that treatment with these lipid substances is strongly effective at controlling diverse types of pain. Treatment of resolvins does not appear to disturb the body homeostasis as severely as many other therapeutic agents that interrupt the body's natural signaling flow, which enables us to predict their fewer adverse effects. This paper serves as a review of currently documented painkilling actions of resolvins, summarizes the potential cellular and receptor-mediated mechanisms to date, and discusses the many clinical uses for these therapeutic lipids that have not yet been tested. Future scientific efforts will more concentrate to unveil such aspects of the substances and to construct clear proofs of concept for pain relief.
Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid - dha - are precursors to potent bioactive mediators that possess both anti-inflammatory and protective properties. These mediators are coined resolvins, docosatrienes, and protectins as general classes. Recently, new families of local-acting mediators were discovered that are biosynthesized from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. These new chemical mediators are endogenously generated in inflammatory exudates collected during the resolution phase, and are termed resolvins and protectins because specific members of these families control the magnitude and duration of inflammation in animals. Resolvins and protectins remove chemokines ferried from the tissue by apoptotic neutrophils and T cells during resolution.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have long been associated with decreased inflammation and are also implicated in the prevention of tumorigenesis. Conventional thinking attributed this mainly to a suppressive effect of these fatty acids on the formation of arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Recent years have seen the discovery of a new class of inflammation-dampening and resolution-promoting n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators called resolvins and protectins. Chemically, these compounds are hydroxylated derivatives of the parent n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for the E-resolvins, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for the D-resolvins and protectin D1
A diet high in oily fish like salmon, halibut, and mackerel may help improve inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. A key anti-inflammatory fat in humans is derived from a fatty acid found in fish oil. The researchers, from Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, found the diet worked best when combined with low aspirin doses. The inflammatory response protects the body against infection and injury, but when it goes wrong it can lead to conditions such as arthritis, and cardiovascular disease. The Harvard team identified a new class of fats in the human body, called resolvins, which they showed can control inflammation. They do this both by stopping the migration of inflammatory cells to sites of inflammation, and the turning on of other inflammatory cells. Resolvins are made from the omega-3 fatty acids, found in high concentration in oily fish. Their production also appears to be stimulated by taking aspirin. by Ray Sahelian, M.D.
Resolvins and gum disease
Topical application of the eicosapentaenoic acid-derived Resolvin E1 (RvE1) helps prevent soft tissue inflammation and destruction, as well as bone loss associated with periodontal disease. Inflammation may be a good target in the treatment of gum disease. Resolvins are a new family of biologically active products of omega-3 fatty acids and natural regulators of the inflammatory process. Gum disease is similar to other chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, where inflammation causes tissue damage. Currently, oral hygiene and regular dental care are used to control plaque and prevent gum disease. However, plaque control may not be enough to prevent gum disease in susceptible people with a high inflammatory response.